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“ISRO’s Unstoppable Ascent: From Challenges and Innovations to Chandrayaan 3, India’s Stellar Space Odyssey”


The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India. It was established on August 15, 1969, with its headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka. ISRO is responsible for the country’s space program, including satellite launches, development of related technologies, and conducting space missions.

ISRO has achieved several significant milestones over the years. Few notable achievements as below:

  • Successful launch of Chandrayaan-1, India’s first lunar probe, in 2008.
  • The Mars Orbiter Mission, also known as Mangalyaan, launched by ISRO in 2013, made India the first country to successfully reach Mars on its maiden attempt.
  • Chandrayaan-2 was India’s second lunar exploration mission, launched by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in July 2019.
  • ISRO has also conducted various satellite launches, including communication satellites, Earth observation satellites, and navigation satellites.

ISRO’s vision is to “harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration.” The organization has played a crucial role in advancing India’s capabilities in space technology and has contributed significantly to various sectors such as communication, weather forecasting, disaster management, agriculture, and navigation.

ISRO continues to work on ambitious projects, including the Chandrayaan-3 lunar mission, Gaganyaan, India’s first manned space mission, and the Aditya-L1 mission, which aims to study the Sun. The organization has been actively involved in international collaborations and has gained recognition for its cost-effective space missions and technology development efforts.

ISRO Impact on Indian Startup Industry in Space Program

India’s journey in space exploration has also witnessed the emergence of a vibrant space-tech startup ecosystem. With over 140 registered space-tech startups, India has become a hub for innovation and technological advancements in the field. These startups are driving forward the country’s space program, contributing with their expertise in satellite technology, communication systems, remote sensing, and other cutting-edge solutions.

The collaboration between ISRO and these startups has resulted in groundbreaking achievements and has positioned India as a stronger player in the global space arena. This synergy between ISRO and the space-tech startups not only enhances India’s capabilities but also fosters economic growth, job creation, and technological progress. As India moves forward with many initiatives in space program, this robust ecosystem of space-tech startups will undoubtedly play a pivotal role in shaping the nation’s trajectory as a global leader in space exploration.

Bried detail of Chandrayaan-2 | Success | Challenges | Failure | Learning

Chandrayaan-2 was India’s second lunar exploration mission, launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in July 2019. It aimed to land a rover called Pragyan on the Moon’s surface and study its topography, mineralogy, and the presence of water ice.

The mission consisted of an orbiter, a lander named Vikram, and the Pragyan rover. The Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft entered lunar orbit successfully, and on September 2, 2019, the lander Vikram detached from the orbiter and began its descent towards the lunar surface.

However, during the final stages of the landing attempt on September 7, 2019, communication with the lander was lost when it was about 2.1 kilometers above the lunar surface. The lander had encountered a velocity glitch, which caused it to deviate from its intended trajectory. Despite the setback, the orbiter component of Chandrayaan-2 remained operational and continued to orbit the Moon, conducting scientific observations.

Although the mission’s primary objective of landing the rover on the lunar surface was not achieved, Chandrayaan-2 had several significant accomplishments and learning experiences:

Orbiter Success: The Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, which remained operational, continued to perform various scientific experiments and provided valuable data about the Moon’s surface and atmosphere. It has been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the lunar environment.

Technological Advancements: The mission demonstrated India’s capability in launching complex missions and successfully placing a spacecraft in lunar orbit. It involved various new technologies and intricate orbital maneuvers.

Public Engagement: Chandrayaan-2 captured the attention of people worldwide and sparked significant public interest in space exploration. The mission served as an inspiration for aspiring scientists and engineers and generated enthusiasm for space research in India.

Lessons Learned: The mission provided valuable insights and lessons for future lunar missions, particularly regarding the complexities and challenges of soft landing on the lunar surface. The data collected from Chandrayaan-2’s attempted landing will contribute to the design and planning of future missions.

Although the lander’s failure to soft-land was disappointing, the overall Chandrayaan-2 mission was still regarded as a significant achievement for India’s space program. The lessons learned from the mission will undoubtedly contribute to future lunar exploration endeavors.

Mission Chandrayaan-3

After analyzing and learning from the challenges faced during the Chandrayaan-2 mission, ISRO exhibited its determination and resilience by working diligently towards the Chandrayaan-3 mission. Recognizing the need to overcome the setback and continue India’s pursuit of lunar exploration, ISRO embarked on an ambitious endeavor to develop and launch Chandrayaan-3.

Chandrayaan-3 aims to build upon the successes of its predecessor while addressing the issues encountered during the landing phase of Chandrayaan-2. ISRO has undertaken a comprehensive review and redesign process to rectify the technical glitches and improve the landing capabilities of the mission. The agency has meticulously analyzed the previous mission’s data, evaluated the challenges faced, and incorporated necessary modifications to ensure a higher probability of a successful soft landing on the lunar surface.

ISRO’s dedicated efforts have focused on enhancing the robustness and reliability of the lander and rover components of Chandrayaan-3. Extensive testing, simulations, and refinements have been carried out to ensure optimal performance and to mitigate potential risks. ISRO has also collaborated with domestic and international partners, leveraging their expertise and resources to augment the mission’s capabilities.

Chandrayaan-3 represents a significant step forward for India’s lunar exploration program, reaffirming the nation’s commitment to advancing scientific knowledge and space technology. The mission holds the promise of delivering valuable scientific data, including detailed surface imaging, mineralogical analysis, and further insights into the Moon’s geology and evolution.

Major Upgrades in Chandrayaan-3

Propulsion module instead of orbiter

Propulsion module, also known as a lunar lander, would serve as a crucial component in facilitating soft landings on the lunar surface. By focusing on the development of a dedicated propulsion module, ISRO aims to enhance the precision and efficiency of lunar landings, mitigating the challenges encountered during the Chandrayaan-2 mission.

The propulsion module would address the intricacies of the lunar landing process, specifically targeting the critical descent and touchdown phases. By dedicating a separate module for propulsion, ISRO can refine the landing procedures and optimize the necessary thrust and control mechanisms.

By introducing a propulsion module, ISRO also opens up possibilities for future missions beyond the Moon

SHAPE – Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth

ISRO has introduced this cutting-edge payload called Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHP-Earth). This advanced instrument aims to study Earth from a unique perspective, providing valuable insights into its habitability, climate dynamics, and environmental changes.

Spectroscopy allows scientists to study the composition of Earth’s atmosphere by analyzing the specific wavelengths of light absorbed or emitted by different molecules. Polarimetry, on the other hand, focuses on measuring the polarization state of light, providing information about the physical properties of particles and surfaces.

SHAPE will be advancing our understanding of Earth as a habitable planet and its contribution to global efforts in climate research. By leveraging state-of-the-art spectro-polarimetric techniques, this innovative payload holds the potential to unlock valuable insights into our own planet’s dynamics, while paving the way for future explorations of exoplanets and the search for signs of extraterrestrial life.

Feature upgrade in Lander

Reinforced Legs in lander module to increased tolerance in landing velocity from 2m/s to 3m/s, which make sure that the legs will not suffer much damage, in case of a crash.

To experiment on comeback capability, increased the fuel capacity on the lander as Chandrayaan-3 lander is approx 250+ kg heavier than its predecessor.

Introduced LVD to receive crucial information about the lunar terrain. The LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimeter) will measure the velocity and distance of the lander from the lunar surface during descent.

All side of lander have been occupied with larger size solar panels. It guarantees sufficient power generation even if the landing orientation doesn’t directly face the sun

Two LHDAC on Chandrayaan-3 as compared to one on Chandrayaan-2. These additional Lander Hazard Detection and Avoidance Camera (LDHA) will Increase Field of View for hazard detection and avoidance.

Chandrayaan-3 exemplifies ISRO’s resilience and commitment to lunar exploration. With enhanced lander and rover components, meticulous planning, and collaborative partnerships, the mission holds the potential to deliver valuable scientific insights. As India prepares to embark on this exciting journey, the world eagerly anticipates the advancements and discoveries that Chandrayaan-3 will bring, propelling humanity’s understanding of Earth’s celestial companion to new heights.

This Post Has 4 Comments

  1. Mahipalsinh S Rathod

    Excellent πŸ‘πŸ»

  2. Rahulsinh D Solanki

    Chandrayan-3 , good opportunity for India, very nice πŸ‘πŸ‘πŸ‘πŸ‘

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